MARCH 6, 2015
C.I.A. to Be Overhauled to Fight Modern Threats
By MARK MAZZETTI
LANGLEY, Va. -- John O. Brennan, director of the Central Intelligence Agency, is planning to reassign thousands of undercover spies and intelligence analysts into new departments as part of a restructuring of the 67-year-old agency, a move he said would make it more successful against modern threats and crises.
Drawing from disparate sources -- from the Pentagon to corporate America -- Mr. Brennan's plan would partly abandon the agency's current structure that keeps spies and analysts separate as they target specific regions or countries. Instead, C.I.A. officers will be assigned to 10 new mission centers focused on terrorism, weapons proliferation, the Middle East and other areas with responsibility for espionage operations, intelligence analysis and covert actions.
During a briefing with reporters on Wednesday, Mr. Brennan gave few specifics about how a new structure would make the C.I.A. better at spying in an era of continued terrorism, cyberspying and tumult across the Middle East. But he said the current structure of having undercover spies and analysts cloistered separately -- with little interaction and answering to different bosses -- was anachronistic given the myriad global issues the agency faces.
"I've never seen a time when we have been confronted with such an array of very challenging, complex and serious threats to our national security, and issues that we have to grapple with," he said.
One model for the new divisions is the agency's Counterterrorism Center, an amalgam of undercover spies and analysts charged with hunting, and often killing, militant suspects across the globe. Once a small, occasionally neglected office in the C.I.A., the Counterterrorism Center has grown into a behemoth with thousands of officers since the Sept. 11 attacks as the C.I.A. has taken charge of a number of secret wars overseas.
But Mr. Brennan also cited another model for his new plan: the American military. He said that the Defense Department's structure of having a single military commander in charge of all operations in a particular region -- the way a four-star commander runs United States Central Command -- was an efficient structure that led to better accountability.
Mark M. Lowenthal, a former senior C.I.A. analyst, said that the reorganization "is not going to go down smoothly" at the agency, especially among clandestine spies who have long been able to withhold information from analysts, such as the identity of their foreign agents. "The clandestine service is very, very guarded about giving too much information about sources to the analysts," he said.
But Mr. Lowenthal, who said he had not been briefed about the reorganization and was basing his understanding of Mr. Brennan's plan on news accounts, said that the new mission centers could help avoid a debacle like the intelligence assessments before the Iraq war, when analysts trusted information from sources they knew little about, and who were later discredited.
During his two years as C.I.A. director, Mr. Brennan has become known for working long days but also for being loath to delegate decisions to lower levels of C.I.A. bureaucracy. During the briefing on Wednesday, he showed flashes of frustration that, under the C.I.A.'s current structure, there is not one single person in charge of -- and to hold accountable for -- a number of pressing issues.
He avoided citing any specific examples of how the C.I.A.'s current structure was hampering operations, and often used management jargon while describing his vision for the agency.
He spoke of wanting to "wring efficiencies" out of the system and trying to identify "seams" in the agency's current structure that hinder the C.I.A. from adequately addressing complex problems. The C.I.A. needed to modernize even if the current system was not "broken," he said, citing how Kodak failed to anticipate the advent of digital cameras.
Mr. Brennan said he was also adding a new directorate at the agency responsible for all of the C.I.A.'s digital operations -- from cyberespionage to data warehousing and analysis.
Mr. Brennan discussed his plans with reporters on the condition that nothing be made public until he met with C.I.A. employees to discuss the new structure. That meeting was Friday.
While adding the new digital directorate, Mr. Brennan chose not to scuttle the C.I.A.'s four traditional directorates sitting at the top of the bureaucracy -- those in charge of clandestine operations, intelligence analysis, science and technology research, and personnel support.
The C.I.A.'s clandestine service, the cadre of undercover spies known for decades as the Directorate of Operations and in recent years renamed the National Clandestine Service, will get its original name back under Mr. Brennan's plan.
Amy Zegart, an intelligence expert at Stanford, said that the C.I.A. risked being drawn further into the daily churn of events rather than focusing on "over-the-horizon threats" at a time when the C.I.A. has already come under criticism for paying little attention to long-term trends.
For his part, Mr. Brennan said this was the very thing he was trying to avoid -- reacting to the world's crises and not giving policy makers sufficient warning before they happened.
"I don't want to just be part of an agency that reports on the world's fires, and the collapse of various countries and systems," he said.